You have seen airplane and helicopter in the sky. Both are the type of flying machine. One fly with less sound and one with more sound. I am not introducing you to something which is not known by you. Most of you know about airplane and helicopter.
But, have you ever thought airplane creates less sound as compared to a helicopter. The airplane has fixed wings to create lift but how helicopter flies?
The helicopter is a very complex flying object. It’s lift and direction and stability is more complicated.
Today, I am going to reveal here some basic science behind working of airplane and helicopter.
After reading completely this post. You will get answers to following questions
- How does airplane fly?
- How does airplane turn?
- How stability of airplane maintained?
- How does helicopter fly?
- How does helicopter turn?
- How stability of helicopter maintained?
Let me make it simple, you will come to know about all basic facts behind the working principle of airplane and helicopter.
If you have more questions after reading this post, you can ask me in the comment box.
Airplane Lift Generation
Let’s begin the tour with the basic working principle of the airplane. An airplane is a flying object which creates lift by its wings. But how lift created in an airplane?
There are 4 forces used in the airplane or any flying object i.e lift, weight, thrust, and drag.
Wings create lift in an airplane by creating higher pressure on its lower surface as compared to the upper surface.
The wing is a combination of airfoils. These airfoils are the basic component of creating lift on the wing.
When there is a difference of pressure on upper and lower surface of the wing then lift generated.
There are primary and secondary control surfaces on an airplane. These control surfaces maintain the directional and overall stability of the airplane. These are
Primary control surfaces
Secondary control surfaces
These control surfaces have different working and contribute to stability. There are some critical flight dynamics parameters known as pitch, roll, and yaw. See the below image.
- Aileron helps in rolling of aircraft.
- Rudder helps in yawing or turning.
- An elevator helps in pitching.
That’s why these are known as primary control surfaces.
Flaps are high lifting devices.
Tabs are used for advanced stability like trimming and controlling the excess forces.
Trim tabs are installed on rudder, aileron, and elevators. Trim tabs are not available on simple or light aircraft.
Spoilers are also known as air speed brakes. This secondary control surface helps in reducing the speed of aircraft while landing.
Now, we come to helicopter engineering or rotating wing aircraft.This is one of the complex engineerings in aeronautics.
I will try my best to give you insightful answer on working principle of the helicopter.
Helicopter Lift Generation
Helicopter or chopper is a flying object which creates lift by its rotating wings or blades. Helicopter blades have a combination of the airfoil which generates lift. When there is high pressure on lower surface as compared to the upper surface of the blade then lift generated.
Main rotor and tail rotor helps in yawing and pitching of the helicopter. Pillot friend has given an insightful answer on helicopter main components and controls.
Helicopter turns with the help of tail rotor. It prevents the helicopter to rotate in opposite direction of the main rotor.
Stability of helicopter is very complex and various components are involved in it.
The airplane and helicopter both are flying object but they have different working principle. One use fixed wings for lift generation and other one uses rotary wing or blades to generate lift. If we talk about the stability, helicopter stability is more complex than the airplane.
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